lunes, julio 11, 2011

Diseñador Instruccional: “Pilar fundamental para el éxito de un proyecto e-learning”


Uno de los temas que más me gusta compartir a la hora de gestionar un proyecto el-learning, es el del Diseño Instruccional, éste en cierta medida es un pilar importantisimo para el exito de dicho proyecto, a contiuación algunos apuntes relacionado con el tema, espero les interese y le ayude a gesionar sus proyectos e-learning.
En la actualidad, ha aumentado considerablemente la realización de proyectos e-learning, los cuales demandan de Diseñadores Instruccionales, para que desarrollen estrategias de formación de calidad para ambientes virtuales e aprendizaje.

En este sentido toda propuesta formativa debe contemplar un Diseñador Instruccional que sea capaz de dar respuesta a interrogantes tales como ¿A quién se enseña? ¿Para qué se enseña? ¿Qué se enseña? ¿Cómo se enseña? ¿Con qué y cómo se evalúa lo enseñado?, interviniendo así en todas las fases de un curso o programa en línea y afirmando entonces, que el diseño instruccional o didáctico puede determinar el éxito (o no) de un proyecto e-learning.

Ahora bien el Diseñador Instruccional es el experto quien mejor debe conocer la forma de trabajo del usuario final en este caso el estudiante, además domina los contenidos de enseñanza y por lo tanto el responsable de planear la estrategia comunicativa del programa en función de las necesidades y características de ese usuario. Por esta razón, su presencia dentro del proyecto no se puede limitar a la elaboración de textos, es el lider de todo el proceso desde sus inicios hasta el momento de la implementación del curso, en otras palabras, es el especialista en metodologías, procesos, estrategias, y aplicación de los diferentes métodos que deben ser considerados durante la fase de diseño de un curso o programa de formación.

El Diseñador Instruccional es quien selecciona el metodo que se va a implementar en el proyecto e-learning, por ejemplo puede usar la metodologia ADDIE,el cual es un modelo basado en el Análisis, Diseño, Desarrollo, Implementación y Evaluación, tal como sus sigla lo expresa, a continuación una breve descripción del modelo:

  • Análisis. En la fase de análisis se define el contenido de la formación de acuerdo a la institución, el equipo de trabajo, la preparación de los responsables de la formación y, por supuesto, el presupuesto.
  • Diseño. Se organizan los objetos de aprendizaje, periodicidad, estructura de los módulos, método psicopedagógico, interacciones, es decir, todos los elementos organizativos para desarrollar la enseñanza y el aprendizaje.
  • Desarrollo. Supone poner en práctica el guión definido previamente, es decir la elaboración de los objetos de aprendizaje, integración del contenido en las aulas virtuales, etc.
  • Implementación. Trabajaremos junto a los informáticos para poner en marcha la política de alfabetización y estableceremos un período de prueba en lo que la evaluación de un grupo de estudiantes sea fundamental para conocer los posibles fallos antes de poner el proyecto en marcha.
  • Evaluación. La evaluación afecta a todas las fases del modelo, lo que favorece la efectividad del mismo. Aunque en este caso destacaremos la evaluación de los objetos de aprendizaje, la evaluación del modelo pedagógico y la evaluación de conocimientos de adquiridos por los estudiantes que es también otro de los elementos clave.

Este proceso sistémico que realiza el Diseñador Instrucional tiene como objetivo planear y delinear una propuesta formativa, parte del análisis de una necesidad de aprendizaje o de capacitación, pasando por la selección y desarrollo de actividades y recursos para satisfacerla, hasta desarrollar los procedimientos para evaluar si dicho aprendizaje fue alcanzado. Este procedimiento se fundamenta en teorías y principios generales de aprendizaje permitiendo así optimizar la instrucción.

Ahora bien, estos modelos de diseño instruccional tienen sus origenes desde hace mucho tiempo y son valiosos los aportes que expertos hacen en cuanto al tema, por ejemplo (Jonasson, en linea). nos comenta que los avances tecnológicos de los 80s y 90s han permitido a los diseñadores Instruccionales moverse más hacia el constructivismo. Una de las herramientas más útiles de los diseñadores Instruccionales constructivistas es el hipertexto y la hipermedia porque les permite diseños ramificados en lugar de lineales como tradicionalmente se han hecho. Las hiperligas para los estudiantes es un buen medio de control indispensable para el aprendizaje constructivista; aunque han surgido algunas preocupaciones en torno a los aprendices novatos, como que se puedan “perder” en el océano de hipermedia. Para atender este riesgo, Jonassen y McAlleese (Jonnassen y McAlleese, en linea) hacen notar que cada etapa de la
adquisición de conocimiento requiere de tipos diferentes de aprendizaje y que la adquisición del conocimiento inicial, tal vez sea mejor realizarla mediante la instrucción tradicional con salidas de aprendizaje predeterminadas, interacción secuencial determinada y evaluaciones con criterios referenciados, mientras que una fase más avanzada de adquisición de conocimientos se ajusta mejor a ambientes constructivistas.

“Un adecuado diseño instruccional que se refleje en el guión literario y técnico, en la estructura de navegación, en la interfaz, en los recursos y en los medios tecnológicos empleados garantizará que se produzca el conocimiento.”(Londoño, 2007:20)

De allí la importancia que el Diseñador Instruccional desarrolle habilidades y obtenga herramientas concretas que le permitan delinear una propuesta a medida de las necesidades de capacitación de la persona u organización que lo demanda.

Cibergrafia:

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